Trio Sonata in G Major, Op. 3 No. 6 (Basso Continuo Part)

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It is often mistakenly believed these sonatas were composed to be performed in religious ceremonies. In fact, symphonies written in the sonata da chiesa form were frequently played during religious ceremonies, especially during Mass at the Gradual, Offertory, Elevation and Communion, as well as the Introit and Deo Gratias. They were also used as a substitute for antiphons during Vespers. They were not, however, written with an explicitly liturgical function, such as, for instance, a Requiem Mass. Symphonic works written in the sonata da chiesa were more often performed as concert pieces for entertainment.

One of the greatest exponents of the sonata da chiesa was the Ravennate Arcangelo Corelli — The three solo violin sonatas of J. Bach are of the sonata da chiesa form, as are his six sonatas for violin and obbligato harpsichord.

After this type of sonata tended to merge with the sonata da camera. The sonata da chiesa had become outdated by the time of Joseph Haydn — , although he did compose a few of his early symphonies in this style slow-fast-minuet-fast.

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The sonata da camera consisted almost entirely of idealized dance tunes. On the other hand, the features of sonata da chiesa and sonata da camera then tended to be freely intermixed. Het was niet ongebruikelijk voor Bach om per zes werken te componeren. Ondanks dat de traditionele elementen nog teruggevonden kunnen worden in een aantal delen, ontstijgt de klavecimbel de standaardbegeleidingen van de barokmuziek. In deze zes sonates transformeerde Bach het genre naar een nieuwe tijd.

De muziek wordt uitgevoerd door Catherine Manson op viool en Ton Koopman op klavecimbel.

Courtly Music Unlimited - Alto recorder and keyboard

Catherine Manson. In werd ze benoemd tot orkestleider van het Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra.


Ton Koopman is een internationale gerespecteerd specialist in barokmuziek en in het bijzonder J. Bach en Buxtehude.

Product is added to your basket The product you have selected is added to your basket. Continue shopping Enter basket. Products Basket 0 Checkout. Sonata 1 in b minor BWV A fugue is based on the polyphonic treatment through extensive melodic imitation of a recurring subject, or theme.

Twelve Trio Sonatas, Op. 1 (Vivaldi)

In fugal sections of a concerto grosso, tutti and soli unite as one group or alternate in expositions statements of the subject and episodes passages in which the subject appears only fragmentarily, if at all. The fugal style occurs largely in fast movements and varies from loose applications, especially among the Italians, to strict ones, especially among the Germans.

The variation process depends on continual variation of a constant factor, such as a theme or a group of harmonies. In the concerto grosso it occurs largely in slow movements; its constant factor is a simple, freely recurring bass line, or ostinato a short, repeated motive or melody. The ostinato often sounds alone in the tutti and may be played in unison at the beginning and end of the movement.

To these structural types—rondo, fugue, and variation—may be added especially the binary design, with each half repeated, that prevails in Baroque dances. In binary form , the music of the first half moves from the tonic key to a closely related key. The second half begins in the new key and progresses back to the original key.

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Dances abound in concerti grossi, not only in those that are primarily orchestral suites or groups of related dance pieces as are many by Handel but in others as well. But the average may be put at from three to five. Corelli and other Italian pioneers had led off with more movements insofar as separate movements can be distinguished from mere sectional changes in their concerti.

Social function of the concerto grosso

Vivaldi reduced the number, mostly by omitting an initial slow movement that his predecessors had probably derived from the French overture. Instead, Vivaldi largely settled on and, in fact, standardized the cycle at three movements in fast—slow—fast order. He may have been influenced by the same cycle in the Italian opera sinfonia or overture. The Germans seem to have varied the number more, with the most movements likely to be made up of relatively short dances. As usual in tonal music music based on the system of major and minor keys , additional variety within unity is achieved in the cycle of concerto grosso movements through departure from and return to the home key.

Much more often than in the suite , a slow inner movement is placed in a nearly related key. Unlike the Baroque suite and sonata, in the concerto the use of interrelated musical themes is not a frequent means of linking the movements. But the concerto grosso is like these other cycles in its dynamic tendency to progress from the more serious to the lighter movements. Each of these concerti is tied closely to a sonnet describing one of the seasons.

More often a special unity results from some unusual trait of musical style or use of an instrument. Like the vocal-instrumental concerto before it, the concerto grosso originated and reached a first peak in Italy, then attained a further peak in Germany. French and English centres responded more than they contributed to it. Again, some of the main landmarks may be briefly noted.


The 12 concerti grossi in Opus 6 by Corelli were not first published until , the year after he died. Corelli still made the loose distinction, best known in the 17th-century sonata , between da chiesa and da camera —that is, church and court-style, or serious and light. The first eight of his concerti grossi are da chiesa church-style , in four to seven movements, the last four da camera court-style , in five movements.

The maturity is marked by larger forms and broader musical architecture, including tighter organization of the rondo principle, and by more distinctive, energetic musical themes, at least rhythmically if not melodically. There is also greater brilliance and exploitation of idiomatic instrumental techniques, including bariolage quick shifts from string to string and broken chords for the solo violin.

Another characteristic is the standardization, as noted earlier, of the three-movement cycle, fast—slow—fast. French influences in Germany were considerable, too, especially where the suite touched the concerto. This was often true in the large, resourceful, and highly varied output of the German Georg Philipp Telemann.

Again, Italian influence is reflected in the many concerti by Vivaldi and others that Bach transcribed and reworked for harpsichord or for organ. A rare opportunity to learn what mattered most to Bach in concerto structure is provided by a study of his changes in the Vivaldi models. Such changes include themes sharpened melodically and musical textures enriched by the addition of new melodic entries to contrapuntal passages or by more intensive interplay of musical motives. The designs of the musical forms themselves are pointed up by insertions of new musical material, deletions, and altered timing of phrases and entries.

Bach summed up the Baroque concerto as he did the cantata , fugue, and other Baroque genres.