When the book was ready was told "no one is interested in the Tudors now". Meanwhile my main interest continued to be the history of astronomy and time keeping, and was getting articles published each month on that. Teaching evening classes. And had lots of other real life things to get on with and to worry about. However felt that this was an aspect of history which had been missed. Henry Fitzroy was no more than seventeen and a half years old when he died, but has left a number of unexplained mysteries. Why for example, when he had been to all intents and purposes publicly acclaimed for eleven years as the King's son and potential future heir, did his father dispose of his son's body by ordering a secret burial for which he paid nothing at all.
Far from being on the sidelines of history, Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, as Henry VIII's son, was deeply involved in the politics and conspiraces of the government and people. If he had not suddenly and unexpectedly died when he did, he may even have succeeded in overthrowing his father as King of England, since in , there was massive opposition to Henry VIII's policies.
And that rebellion came back into the news in When we were celebrating the anniversary of the Lincolnshire Rebellion. The Tudors were back. Could there have been any connection with the possibly suspicious sudden death of the Duke of Richmond, just as an act of Parliament had gone through which would enable Henry VIII to nominate his successor.
I discussed this with Anne Ward who was writing the booklet and organising the event.
I was at the time writing about the history of astronomy and teaching astronomy. Interest in Tudor history revived, when teams of divers were finding parts of the "Mary Rose" , in the Solent. A tragic wreck one of the divers died as well, she worked for the same company my husband worked for. Graecam vero etiam linguam callebat ad amussim, Italicam quoque et Germanicam mediocriter. Mathematicarum porro scientiarum ad miraculum usque peritus, Henrico octavo dicitur horologium [word sciotericum omitted] fabricasse, quod non solum horas vulgares ostenderet, sed diem etiam mensis, mutationes lunares, et fluxus atque refluxus maris tempora.
Ad haec, magna vi dicendi praeditus, per conciones aliquot egregias innotuit Regi etiamnum puero, cujus tamen singulari favore ad has dignitates dicitur provectus. John Jebb :. We may judg of his great Abilities by what Godwin speaks of him, viz.
The spelling above is of the edition: it was modernised in the various 19th century editions. Despite being in quotation marks, it is not a verbatim transcription of the original Godwin text below , although the dial description itself is a fair copy with updated spelling. On pages — we see:. Mathematicarum porro scientiarum ad miraculum usque peritus, Henrico octavo dicitur horologium sciotericum fabricasse, quod non solum horas vulgares ostenderet, sed diem etiam mensis, mutationes[.
But this Latin is not a full and exact translation of the earlier English version below: for instance, no mention of the sign of the sun zodiac , or the planetary hour is made.rechearose.tk
Who designed Queens’ Dial?
It is not possible to translate this Latin back into English and obtain the descriptions of the dial that we have seen above. The original English version appears in A catalogue of the bishops of England, since the first planting of Christian religion in this island , by Francis Godwin , page , or page —9 , as follows:.
A man of great learning, whereof he left divers testimonies in writing [comma in ] workes yet extant both in Latine and English : beside the Greeke and Latin [ Latine in ] he was very well seene in the Italian and Dutch toong, and an excellent Mathematician. He gave unto king [ King in ] Henry the eight a dyall [ diall in ] of his owne devise, shewing not onely the hower of the day, but also the day of the moneth, the signe of the sonne [ sun in ] , the planetary hower ; yea the change of the moone, the ebbing and flowing of the sea ; with divers other things as strange [comma in ] to the great wonder of the king and his owne no lesse commendation.
An earlier account is given in Scriptorum illustrium maioris Brytannie by John Bale , enlarged edition, , writing less than twenty years after the event:. Bale and Ponet were personally acquainted with each other, so this statement carries some weight. In the Wikipedia page for John Ponet, the statement A sundial of his design was installed at Hampton Court is given reference , leading to the note:.
Random House. This work was first published in and has been re-issued several times since. On page we find:. Reference 10 leads to a footnote cited by C. Now that we have a reached a reference to Routh, to track citations back any further, we re-join the chain of citations in the previous section, starting with Routh Both the Latin horologium and the English dial could, at an early enough period, have referred either to a sundial or to the face of a mechanical clock, or watch. EARLIER instances might be produced … of Horologia in different parts of Europe; but this word signifying in those centuries dials as well as clocks , nothing decisive can be inferred from such term, unless from other circumstances, or expressions, it can be shewn to relate to a clock rather than a dial.
Thomas Fuller recognised this ambiguity when he wrote about John Poynet:.
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He presented King Henry the 8. Austin Nuttall , , Volume 2, pp. He renders Sciotericum as observing the shadow of the Sun. The word Sciotericum is related to the Greek skio-therikon meaning shadow-hunter , so use of this word confirms that Godwin intended to mean a sundial.
Proper New Book of Cookery
That distinguished antiquary Mr. Walpole has in his possession a clock, which appears by the inscription to have been a present from Henry the Eighth to Anne Boleyn. Poynet, bishop of Winchester, likewise gave an astronomical clock to the same king.
Godwyn de Praesul. It is possible that he should have paid more attention to his own cautionary advice at the start of his paper, quoted above.
However, we should take note of a footnote on pp. Barrington is famous for being in the wrong. For instance:. Poynet, Bishop of Winchester, gave an astronomical clock to the same king. Later, in the same periodical, we find:.
PPC 71 (November 2002)
This clock formed part of the celebrated collection of Horace Walpole, at the sale of which, in , it was purchased by her present Majesty for l. The clock at Hampton Court bears the date , and also the initials V. The initials V. A curious clock constructed by him and presented to Henry the Eighth, had exhibited his mechanical genius and procured his first advancement: … [ The History of the Church of England , by Richard Watson Dixon , , Volume 3, page ].
The earliest use so far discovered of the word sundial for the gift to Henry was by Routh, in Posted in culinary history , historic receipts recipes , jolly ol' England , modern recipe! Receipts recipes for several of the same dishes appear time and time again in cookbooks of every century.
The specifics may change slightly, but the basics remain the same. PERRE Take grene pesyn, and boile hem in a potte; And whan they ben y-broke, drawe the brot a good quantite thorg a streynour into a potte, And sitte hit on the fire; and take oynons and parcelly, and hewe hem small togidre, And caste hem thereto; And take pouder of Canell and peper, and caste thereto, and lete boile; And take vynegur and pouder of ginger, and caste thereto; And then take Saffron and salte, a litull quantite, and caste thereto; And take faire peces of paynmain, or elles of suc tendur brede, and kutte hit yn fere mosselles, and caste there-to; And then serue hit so for.
Take some peas and boil them in water until well cooked and very soft. Pass them through a sieve to create a puree and remove the husks then return the puree to the heat. Add some finely chopped onions and parsley, ground cinnamon and pepper and continue to cook. Next add ground ginger, vinegar, saffron and salt along with a small quantity of fine white bread. Continue cooking until the bread is completely incorporated into the puree, and then serve. Abiding by papal authority meant that a series of feast and fast days ruled the everyday lives, and meals, of all British citizens.
Those who were members of the Court were no exception.
Of course, they carried the whole concept to an extreme. Multi-hour banquets, consisting of several different courses, were held on feast days and special occasions. Meals were then trimmed, albeit slightly, in accordance with Church rules regarding fast days, and meat was jettisoned for fish.